Glucose plays an important role in cell metabolism and has an impact on cellular physiology. Changes in glucose availability may strongly influence growth rate of the cell size, cell metabolism and the rate of generation of cellular by-products, such as reactive oxygen species. The positive effect of low glucose concentration conditions—calorie restriction is observed in a wide range of species, including the Saccharomyces cerevisiae yeast, yet little is known about the effect of high glucose concentrations—calorie excess. Such analysis seems to be particularly important due to recently common problem of diabetes and obesity. The effect of glucose on morphological and physiological parameters of the yeast cell was conducted using genetic alteration (disruption of genes involved in glucose signalling) and calorie restriction and calorie excess conditions. The results show a significant relationship among extracellular glucose concentration, cell size and reactive oxygen species generation in yeast cells. Furthermore, the results obtained through the use of mutant strains with disorders in glucose signalling pathways suggest that the intracellular level of glucose is more important than its extracellular concentration. These data also suggest that the calorie excess as a factor, which has a significant impact on cell physiology, requires further comprehensive analyses.