Dietary Arachidonic Acid Alters Tissue Fatty Acid Profile, Whole Body Eicosanoid Production and Resistance to Hypersaline Challenge in Larvae of the Temperate Marine Fish, Striped Trumpeter (Latris lineata)
We determined the effect of dietary arachidonic acid (20:4n-6, ARA) on tissue ratios of ARA/eicosapentaenoic acid (20:5n-3, EPA) and subsequent whole body production of the eicosanoids, prostaglandin F2α (PGF2α) and E2 (PGE2) in the marine larvae of striped trumpeter, Latris lineata. Larvae were also subjected to a hypersaline challenge (55 ppt) with an aim to determine possible relationships between tissue fatty acid profiles, prostanoid production, and their tolerance to osmotic challenge. From 5 to 23 days post-hatch (dph) larvae were fed live food, rotifers (Brachionus plicatilis), that had been enriched with one of five experimental emulsions containing increasing concentrations of ARA and constant EPA and 22:6n-3 (docosahexaenoic acid, DHA). Final ARA concentrations in the rotifers were 1.33, 3.57, 6.21, 8.21 and 11.22 mg g−1 DM. Larval growth and survival was unaffected by dietary ARA. Tissue fatty acid concentrations generally corresponded with dietary fatty acids and final tissue ratios of ARA/EPA ranged from 0.9 to 4.9. At 18 and 23 dph whole body concentrations of PGF2α and PGE2 generally increased as more dietary ARA was provided in a dose-response manner, and a significant elevation in both PGF2α and PGE2 in larvae fed the highest dietary ARA concentration was recorded at 23 dph compared to larvae receiving the lowest concentration. At 18 dph, the highest cumulative inactivity following a hypersaline challenge occurred in larvae fed 8.21 or 11.22 mg ARA g−1 DM, which was significantly greater than those receiving 3.57 mg ARA g−1 DM. At 23 dph no relationship between inactivity of larvae subjected to a hypersaline challenge to dietary ARA was evident. In summary, dietary ARA altered tissue ARA/EPA ratios, prostanoid production and resistance to a hypersaline challenge in larval striped trumpeter. While increasing dietary ARA generally resulted in elevation of prostanoids as well as increasing the number of inactive larvae following a hypersaline challenge at 18 dph, similar trends between prostanoids and larval inactivity were not evident at 23 dph, suggesting the exact mechanisms and relationships between eicosanoids and larval osmoregulation warrants further investigation. Nevertheless the study provides preliminary data on the effect of dietary ARA on the prostaglandin production in marine fish larvae.