Biomolecular mechanisms of staphylococcal biofilm formation

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The multitude of biomolecular and regulatory factors involved in staphylococcal adhesion and biofilm formation owe much to their ability to colonize surfaces, allowing the biofilm form to become the preferential bacterial phenotype. Judging by total number, biomass and variety of environments colonized, bacteria can be categorized as the most successful lifeform on earth. This is due to the ability of bacteria and other microorganisms to respond phenotypically via biomolecular processes to the stresses of their surrounding environment. This review focuses on the specific pathways involved in the adhesion of the Gram-positive bacteria Staphylococcus epidermidis and Staphylococcus aureus with reference to the role of specific cell surface adhesins, the ica operon, accumulation-associated proteins and quorum-sensing systems and their significance in medical device-related infection.

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