TGF-β signaling in Duchenne muscular dystrophy

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The TGF-β protein family consists of secreted multifunctional cytokines that control diverse processes, such as cell growth and differentiation. Aberrant expression and downstream signaling of these growth factors have been associated with multiple diseases, including muscle wasting disorders, such as Duchenne muscular dystrophy. In this review we discuss recent advances in understanding the role of TGF-β family members during normal skeletal muscle biology/regeneration and their role in muscle pathology, with a special focus on Duchenne muscular dystrophy. In addition, we will highlight progress in the development of potential therapeutics for Duchenne muscular dystrophy based on intervention of TGF-β signaling.

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