Since its discovery, ionizing radiation has been a cornerstone of cancer treatment. In step with technological advances, radiation therapy has strived to increase its therapeutic ratio. With the advent of 3D and cross-sectional imaging, and the ability to modulate the radiation beam, the current age of radiation oncology was initiated, promising better tumor control rates with fewer side effects. However, these ever more precise and conformal treatments have also revealed the importance of accounting for organ and tumor motion. Efforts to understand and compensate for the uncertainties caused by movement are required to ensure accurate conformal radiation therapy. This review will explore the current and future directions of image-guided radiation therapy, whose goal is to increase the accuracy of radiotherapy.