Papillary renal cell carcinoma (pRCC) accounts for approximately 10% of renal parenchymal tumors. There are two pRCC subtypes reported in several studies, but at present, there is limited molecular evidence to validate this pRCC subtyping in the daily routine. The utility of subtyping pRCC is based on reports describing that pRCC subtype is an independent predictor of outcome, with type 1 tumors showing significantly better survival than type 2 tumors. In this article, we summarize the relevant knowledge on pRCC regarding tumor features: clinical presentation, histopathology, electron microscopy, immunohistochemistry, cytogenetics, genetic/molecular and prognosis. We present an overview of the currently available pRCC treatment options and some of the new promising agents.