Risk of secondary solid malignancies after allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation and preventive strategies

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The risk of secondary solid malignancies is increased after allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (HSCT). The risk starts at about 10 years after HSCT and continues even 20 years later. The most common secondary malignancies include squamous cell carcinoma of skin, genitourinary tract and oral cavity; lung and breast cancers. The use of total body irradiation or conditioning chemotherapy, chronic graft-versus-host disease and duration since HSCT can influence the risk of secondary solid malignancies. Secondary solid malignancies are common causes of nonrelapse mortality in long-term survivors and may account for up to 10% of late deaths. Avoiding smoking, alcohol use and excess sun exposure may reduce the risk. Cancer prevention guidelines are largely consensus-driven and follow the recommendations for general population.

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