High-grade serous ovarian cancer remains one of the most lethal malignancies in women. Despite recent advances in surgical and pharmaceutical therapies, survival rates remain poor. A major impediment in management of this disease, that continues to contribute to poor overall survival rates, is resistance to standard carboplatin-paclitaxel combination chemotherapies. In addition to tumor cell intrinsic mechanisms leading to drug resistance, there is increasing awareness of the crucial role of the tumor microenvironment in mediating natural immune defense mechanisms and selective pressures that appear to facilitate chemotherapy sensitivity. We provide an overview of some of the promising new genetic and immunological biomarkers in ovarian cancer and discuss their biology and their likely clinical utility in future ovarian cancer management.