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We undertook a retrospective cohort study of 51 feet in 49 patients with surgically managed second metatarsophalangeal joint instability, including repair of the crossover second toe deformity. The fundamental intervention consisted of proximal interphalangeal joint arthrodesis combined with second metatarsophalangeal joint relocation and Kirschner-wire transfixation, and this was performed alone or in combination with one of the following additional surgical maneuvers: flexor tendon transfer or flexor set release, flexor plate repair, placement of a plantar-lateral retention suture, extensor tendon transfer, metatarsophalangeal arthroplasty, metatarsal osteotomy, or second-to-third syndactyly. The outcome of interest was the presence of a transverse plane second metatarsophalangeal joint angle of 0° to 15° measured on the late postoperative follow-up radiograph. Overall, the median angular correction for all second metatarsophalangeal joint interventions was 8°, and second-to-third syndactyly yielded the most long-term correction followed by, in descending order of the amount of angular correction, use of the fundamental intervention in combination with metatarsophalangeal joint arthroplasty, placement of a plantar-lateral anchor suture in the flexor plate, metatarsal osteotomy, flexor tendon transfer, flexor plate repair, extensor tendon transfer, and the fundamental intervention as a solitary procedure. A sensitivity analysis indicated that our results were resistant to the influence that an unmeasured variable would impart on the data. The results of this investigation should aid surgeons treating patients with unstable second metatarsophalangeal joints, and can be used in the development of future clinical trials and observational studies that focus on the management of this common deformity.