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Wilson osteotomy of the first metatarsal is a technically simple and reliable operation for the correction of the hallux valgus (HV) deformity. The major anatomic components of the osteotomy are the osteotomy angle and the distance of the osteotomy to the first metatarsophalangeal (MTP) joint. Lateralization of the first metatarsal head is the rationale for correction of the deformity. The main disadvantage of the technique is the considerable shortening of the first metatarsal. The relation between the amount of HV correction, first metatarsal shortening, and the anatomic parameters of the osteotomy was evaluated. Radiographs of 46 feet of 32 patients were retrospectively evaluated after an average follow-up period of 31.4 months. From the preoperative, early postoperative, and last control radiographs, the amount of HV correction, first metatarsal shortening, the osteotomy angle, the distance of the osteotomy to the first MTP joint, and lateralization of the first metatarsal head were measured. The presented study indicated that the osteotomy angle and the lateral displacement of the metatarsal head have a significant correlation with the amount of HV correction. Distance of the osteotomy to the first MTP joint has no relevance with the repair of the deformity. A positive linear correlation was present between the osteotomy angle and the first metatarsal shortening. Because the amount of first metatarsal shortening has significant influence over the clinical result, the main aim in a Wilson osteotomy should be maximum lateral displacement of the metatarsal head with a minimum osteotomy angle.