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Intraosseous lipomas are one of the rarest bone tumors found in the body. The incidence has been reported to be <0.1% of all primary bone tumors. The differential diagnoses of an intraosseous lipoma in the calcaneus include plantar fasciitis, retrocalcaneal bursitis, gout, stress fracture, unicameral bone cyst, aneurysmal bone cyst, osteoblastoma, enchondroma, chondromyxoid fibroma, nonossifying fibroma, giant cell tumor, chondroblastoma, fibrous dysplasia, and chondrosarcoma. It has been reported that 60% to 70% of patients with an intraosseous lipoma present with symptoms. This article describes a case of a pathologic fracture secondary to a large intraosseous lipoma, the surgical treatments, and the subsequent resolution of symptoms. The purpose of our report was 3-fold: (1) to increase awareness of intraosseous lipomas and their potential to cause pathologic fractures in the calcaneus; (2) to suggest a possible treatment protocol for intraosseous lipomas in the calcaneus; and (3) to describe a rare case of an intraosseous lipoma of the calcaneus not located exclusively in the neutral triangle.