Numerical Classification of the Chemical Elements and Its Relation to the Periodic System

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A numerical classification was performed on 69 elements with 54 chemical and physicochemical properties. The elements fell into clusters in close accord with the electron shell s-, p- and d-blocks. The f-block elements were not included for lack of sufficiently complete data. The successive periods of s- and p-block elements appeared in an oval configuration, with d-block elements lying to one side. More than three axes were required to give good representation of the variation, although the interpretation of the higher axes is difficult. Only 15 properties were scorable for the noble gases, but despite the paucity of properties reflecting chemical reactivity, analysis of the 69 elements on these properties still showed the major features seen from the full set.

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