In Vivo Ultrasound Characteristics of Vaginal Mesh Kit Complications

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Abstract

Objective

The objective of this study was to investigate the ultrasound characteristics of vaginal mesh in women with vaginal mesh complications.

Methods

This was a cross-sectional study of women presenting with extrusion complications from vaginal mesh kit for prolapse at our tertiary care center between years 2009 and 2014. We included women who concurrently underwent a 3-dimensional endovaginal ultrasound (EVUS) as part of the clinical evaluation. We excluded women with incomplete charts and poor imaging quality. Subjects were categorized by the presence or absence of associated pelvic pain. Based on ultrasound findings, we compared the location of mesh, the appearance of mesh pattern (flat, folding, prominence, convoluted), and other EVUS characteristics of mesh.

Results

Forty-six women with vaginal mesh complications and good image quality were included. When comparing mesh length between posterior and anterior compartments, the posterior meshes were significantly longer than the anterior meshes (42.1 [SD, 11.9] mm vs 25.8 [SD, 9] mm; P < 0.0001) and more often associated with pain. In the posterior compartment, the mean mesh length seen on EVUS was significantly longer in women with pain than in women without pain (46.5 [SD, 9] mm vs 31.8 [SD, 12.1] mm; P = 0.0001). There was also a higher proportion of a “flat” mesh pattern, 14 (58.3%) of 25, in the posterior compartment associated with the presence of pain (P = 0.013). In the posterior compartment, a smaller distance between the distal edge of the mesh and the anal sphincter was significantly associated with the presence of pain (8 mm [0–37] vs 21 mm [8–35], P = 0.024). In both compartments, the EVUS had 100% sensitivity for detection of mesh extrusions.

Conclusions

In this population of patients presenting with mesh complications, the posterior meshes were more often visualized as a “flat” pattern with a higher frequency of pain. Mesh complications of the anterior compartment had a higher frequency of folding and shrinkage.

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