Hydronephrosis Presenting 6 Months After Sacral Colpopexy: Case Report and Literature Review

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Abstract

Objectives

The aim of this study was to describe a case of uterovaginal prolapse managed with robotic-assisted sacral colpopexy complicated by severe right-sided hydronephrosis despite normal intraoperative cystoscopy.

Methods

A 68-year-old woman presented with a worsening vaginal bulge over the past 2 years. Tricompartment stage 2 uterovaginal prolapse, with dominant cystocele and skin erosion at the posterior fourchette from prolapse friction, was identified on physical examination, and the patient underwent pelvic reconstructive surgery, including sacral colpopexy.

Results

The patient was discharged on postoperative day 4 after being treated for a urinary tract infection. At her 6-week postoperative visit, the patient demonstrated normal vaginal support. She presented 6 months postoperatively with right-sided hydronephrosis with an almost imperceptible stricture where the right iliac vessels cross the pelvic brim, demonstrating a delayed manifestation of ureteral injury. She underwent open ureteroscopy, ureteroneocystostomy with vesicopsoas hitch, and ureteral stent placement. Ureteroscopy demonstrated a very mild narrowed caliber of the ureter just above the sacroiliac joint without overt obstruction. Follow-up intravenous pyelogram demonstrated no evidence of damage or obstruction. At nearly 1-year follow-up, the patient remained asymptomatic and had normal renal function.

Conclusion

This case demonstrates the challenges of an uncommon, but highly morbid, complication of pelvic reconstructive surgery. Even when adequate visualization of the ureters and delicate ureteral dissection is achieved throughout surgery, occult injuries can still occur. Surgeons should maintain a high index of suspicion of ureteral injury when evaluating patients for late presentations of postoperative complications.

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