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The aims of this study were to describe relationships between women given a diagnosis of nocturnal enuresis (NE) and controls without any urinary complaints and to compare women with NE with those with overactive bladder (OAB). We hypothesized that NE has unique associations with demographics and medical and psychosocial diagnoses.This is a secondary analysis of a database that included all female veterans who established care with a primary care provider from 1997 to 2015. International Classification of Diseases, Ninth Revision, codes identified women with a diagnosis of NE or OAB. Patient characteristics, medical diagnoses, and psychosocial factors previously described as relating to NE and/or OAB were compared between the 2 distinct comparative groups, with significance set at P < 0.05. Stepwise logistic regression was used to assess all significant findings.A total of 596,815 women were identified; controls totaled 570,049, the group with OAB totaled 26,446 (4.4%), and the group with NE totaled 301 (0.05%).Multivariable analysis compared the group with NE with controls; all measured psychosocial characteristics remained significantly associated with an NE diagnosis (all Ps < 0.05), as well as obstructive sleep apnea history, stroke, self-identification as “minority,” smoking, hypertension, and a body mass index higher than those of the general control population (all Ps < 0.05).When the populations with NE and OAB were compared, a diagnosis of posttraumatic stress disorder, an overdose history, depression, military sexual trauma, increasing body mass index, and younger age remained significantly associated with NE (all Ps < 0.05).The association of NE with psychosocial characteristics and psychiatric illnesses persisted irrespective of the comparison population. Practitioners should investigate the diagnosis of NE in those female veterans with psychosocial issues.