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The aim of this study was to determine the association between pelvic organ prolapse (POP) and non–human papillomavirus (HPV) Papanicolaou (Pap) smear abnormalities.This was a retrospective cohort study of women aged 40 to 70 years who presented for consultation at our institution between 2010 and 2015 and had results of a Pap smear and HPV test available within 5 years of their visit. We extracted demographic information, medical and social history, Pap smear, and HPV results from the electronic medical record. Associations between the presence of POP and non-HPV Pap smear abnormalities were estimated using univariable and multivariable analyses.We reviewed 1590 charts and excluded 980 women, leaving 610 women in the study: 183 with POP and 427 without POP. Women with POP were significantly older (58.2 ± 7.2 vs 55.6 ± 6.6, P < 0.01) and more likely to have a remote (>10 year) history of abnormal Pap smear (24.0% vs 14.8%, P < 0.01). The rate of non–HPV-associated abnormal Pap smears was higher in the POP group than in the non-POP group (12/183 [6.6%] vs 12/427 [2.8%], P = 0.029). In the POP group, the rate of non-HPV Pap smear abnormality was significantly associated with increasing prolapse stage (stage 1: 0/16 [0%], stage 2: 5/77 [6.5%], stage 3: 3/73 [4.1%], stage 4: 4/17 [23.5%]; P = 0.02). After controlling for age and remote history of abnormal Pap smear, the odds ratio for non-HPV Pap smear abnormalities in the POP group remained significant (2.49; 95% confidence interval, 1.08–5.79).Human papillomavirus–negative Pap smear abnormalities may be related to POP. Our findings have important implications for surgeons seeking to leave the cervix in situ in women with POP.