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The aims of this study were to analyze levels of selected inflammatory urinary cytokines/chemokines in subjects with overactive bladder (OAB) and to determine if cytokine/chemokine levels correlate with quality of life and symptom distress.This prospective, case-control pilot analysis included 23 women with OAB and 22 control subjects. Overactive bladder subjects were enrolled if they had symptoms of urinary frequency, urgency, or urge incontinence for more than 3 months and urodynamic evidence of detrusor overactivity. Control subjects denied urinary symptoms. Subjects and control subjects were excluded if they had known inflammatory bladder or systemic conditions, cystitis, stones, or recent anticholinergic use. Urine samples were collected from each subject and control. Subjects filled out the Incontinence Quality of Life Questionnaire and the Urinary Distress Inventory Questionnaire 6. Cytokine/chemokine levels were determined using the multiplexed Meso Scale Discovery Platform and were corrected for urinary creatinine concentrations. Statistical analysis comparing cytokine/chemokine levels was performed using the Mann-Whitney U test; relationships between cytokine/chemokine and questionnaire scores were calculated with Spearman correlation coefficient.Subjects with OAB had significantly lower urinary interleukin 10 (IL-10), IL-12-p70, and IL-13 levels compared with control subjects. Interleukin 1 correlated with worsening symptom distress on Urinary Distress Inventory Questionnaire 6.To our knowledge, this is at present the only study correlating inflammatory cytokine/chemokine levels in women with OAB with quality of life and distress. Interleukin 1 signified worsening distress, whereas IL-10, IL-12p70, and IL-13 were the only cytokines found at different levels in subjects. Our findings support a larger study in order to evaluate the value of urinary cytokines/chemokines as potential biomarkers.