Kupffer cells and reactive oxygen species partially mediate lipopolysaccharide-induced downregulation of nuclear receptor pregnane x receptor and its target geneCYP3ain mouse liver

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Abstract

Pregnane X receptor (PXR) is a member of the nuclear receptor superfamily that regulates target gene transcription in a ligand-dependent manner. The in vivo effects of lipopolysaccharide (LPS) on expression of PXR and its target gene cytochrome P450 3A (CYP3A) in mouse liver were investigated in this study. Mice were injected intraperitoneally with different doses of LPS (0.1–5.0 mg/kg). PXR and CYP3A11 mRNA levels were measured using reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction. Results indicate that LPS significantly inhibits the expression of PXR mRNA in a dose-dependent manner, followed by suppression of CYP3A11 mRNA in mouse liver. LPS also represses the upregulation of CYP3A11 mRNA levels and erythromycin N-demethylase (ERND) catalytic activity in mice pretreated with PXR ligands dexamethasone, rifampicin, mifepristone, and phenobarbital. LPS-induced downregulation of PXR and CYP3A11 mRNA in liver was significantly attenuated in mice pretreated with gadolinium chloride, a selective Kupffer cell toxicant. Pretreatment with a single dose of gadolinium chloride (10 mg/kg) also significantly attenuated LPS-induced downregulation of dexamethasone-, rifampicim-, mifepristone-, and phenobarbital-inducible, CYP3A11 mRNA expression and ERND activity in mouse liver. Furthermore, LPS-induced downregulation of PXR and CYP3A11 mRNA was significantly attenuated in mice pretreated with allopurinol, an inhibitor of xanthine oxidase, and diphenyleneiodonium chloride, an inhibitor of NADPH oxidase. Allopurinol and diphenyleneiodonium chloride pretreatment also attenuated the repressive effects of LPS on dexamethasone-, rifampicin-, mifepristone-, and phenobarbital-inducible CYP3A11 mRNA expression and ERND catalytic activity in mouse liver. However, aminoguanidine, a selective inhibitor of inducible nitric oxide synthase, has no effect on LPS-induced downregulation of PXR and CYP3A11 mRNA. Finally, LPS-induced downregulation of PXR and CYP3A11 mRNA was prevented in mice pretreated with either N-acetylcysteine or ascorbic acid. These antioxidants also prevented the repressive effects of LPS on dexamethasone-, rifampicin-, mifepristone-, and phenobarbital-inducible CYP3A11 mRNA expression and ERND catalytic activity in mouse liver. These results indicate that Kupffer cells contribute to LPS-induced downregulation of PXR and CYP3A in mouse liver. Reactive oxygen species, produced possibly by NADPH oxidase and perhaps by xanthine oxidase, are involved in LPS-induced downregulation of nuclear receptor PXR and its target gene CYP3A in mouse liver.

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