Reactive oxygen species (ROS) are known to participate in neurodegeneration after ischemia–reperfusion. With the aid of ROS, the calpain-induced lysosomal rupture provokes ischemic neuronal death in the cornu Ammonis (CA) 1 of the hippocampus; however, the target proteins of ROS still remain unknown. Here a proteomic analysis was done to identify and characterize ROS-induced carbonyl modification of proteins in the CA1 of the macaque monkey after transient whole-brain ischemia followed by reperfusion. We found that carbonyl modification of heat shock 70-kDa protein 1 (Hsp70-1), a major stress-inducible member of the Hsp70 family, was extensively increased before the neuronal death in the CA1 sector, and the carbonylation site was identified to be Arg469 of Hsp70-1. The CA1 neuronal death conceivably occurs by calpain-mediated cleavage of carbonylated Hsp70 that becomes prone to proteolysis with the resultant lysosomal rupture. In addition, the carbonyl levels of dihydropyrimidinase-like 2 isoform 2, glial fibrillary acidic protein, and β-actin were remarkably increased in the postischemic CA1. Therefore, ischemia–reperfusion-induced oxidative damage to these proteins in the CA1 may lead to loss of the neuroprotective function, which contributes to neuronal death.