Atherosclerosis is the underlying condition in most cardiovascular diseases. Among the highly specific cellular and molecular responses, endothelial dysfunction plays a key role in disease initiation and progression. These events coincide with the occurrence of oxidative stress. Increased reactive oxygen species production and oxidization of low-density lipoprotein are detected throughout atherosclerosis progression. MicroRNAs (miRNAs) have emerged as important regulators of gene expression that posttranscriptionally modify cellular responses and function. Accumulating studies indicate an integrated miRNA network in the molecular mechanisms that control cellular homeostasis, vascular inflammation, and metabolism. Experimental models of atherosclerosis highlight a direct link between altered miRNA expression profiles and the pathophysiology of the disease and identify putative miRNA candidates for the development of novel therapeutic strategies. In this review, we provide an overview of the role of miRNA regulatory networks in oxidative stress in atherosclerosis and arterial remodeling and discuss their potential therapeutic implications.