Peroxiredoxin 6 expression is inversely correlated with nuclear factor-κB activation duringClonorchis sinensisinfestation

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Abstract

Clonorchis sinensis is a carcinogenic human liver fluke. Its infection promotes persistent oxidative stress and chronic inflammation environments in the bile duct and surrounding liver tissues owing to direct contact with worms and their excretory–secretory products (ESPs), provoking epithelial hyperplasia, periductal fibrosis, and cholangiocarcinogenesis. We examined the reciprocal regulation of two ESP-induced redox-active proteins, NF-κB and peroxiredoxin 6 (Prdx6), during C. sinensis infection. Prdx6 overexpression suppressed intracellular free-radical generation by inhibiting NADPH oxidase2 and inducible nitric oxide synthase activation in the ESP-treated cholangiocarcinoma cells, substantially attenuating NF-κB-mediated inflammation. NF-κB overexpression decreased Prdx6 transcription levels by binding to two κB sites within the promoter. This transcriptional repression was compensated for by other ESP-induced redox-active transcription factors, including erythroid 2-related factor 2 (Nrf2), hypoxia inducible factor 1α (HIF1α), and CCAAT/enhancer-binding protein β (C/EBPβ). Distribution of immunoreactive Prdx6 and NF-κB was distinct in the early stages of infection in mouse livers but shared concomitant localization in the later stages. The intensity and extent of their immunoreactive staining in infected mouse livers are proportional to lesion severity and infection duration. The constitutive elevations of Prdx6 and NF-κB during C. sinensis infection may be associated with more severe persistent hepatobiliary abnormalities mediated by clonorchiasis.

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