Neuroprotective effect of phosphocreatine on oxidative stress and mitochondrial dysfunction induced apoptosis in vitro and in vivo: Involvement of dual PI3K/Akt and Nrf2/HO-1 pathways

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Abstract

Methylglyoxal (MGO), an active metabolite of glucose, is observed in high levels in the tissues and blood of diabetic patients. Phosphocreatine (PCr), a high-energy phosphate compound, exhibits a range of pharmacological actions but little is well known of its neuroprotective action. The aim of the present study was to investigate the neuroprotective effects and the possible mechanisms of PCr. Diabetes is closely associated with neurodegenerative diseases, leading not only to the peripheral nervous system (PNS) and but also to central nervous system (CNS) damage. Therefore, we established two rat models of diabetes in vivo induced by MGO and streptozocin (STZ) respectively, while utilized differentiated PC-12 cells in vitro. Treatment of PC-12 cells with PCr markedly attenuated MGO-induced change of viability, apoptosis, accompanied by decreased levels of caspase-3, casapse-9 and Bcl-2/Bax protein ratio. Determination of cellular respiratory function was performed with intact PC-12 cells and homogenized hippocampal neuron tissue of rat. Reactive oxygen species (ROS) generation was assessed by membrane permeable fluorescent probe DCFH-DA. The expressions of Akt, Nrf2 and HO-1 were examined by Western blot. PCr pretreatment significantly reduced oxidative stress-induced high LDH, MDA level, and ROS production of PC-12 cells. PCr pretreatment also significantly decreased mitochondrial dysfunction in vitro and in vivo. In addition, PCr pretreatment increased the expression of p-Akt, Nrf2 and HO-1, and reduced the apoptosis. Moreover, the expression of Cleaved caspase3 was partially increased and the p-Akt, Nrf2 and HO-1 was partially reduced by a PI3K inhibitor (LY294002). While, compared with LY294002 groups, pre-treatment with PCr at the concentrations of 20mM significantly reduced the expression of Cleaved caspase3 and increased the expression of p-Akt, Nrf2 and HO-1. Molecular docking assay showed that PCr possessed powerful affinity towards to Akt with lower binding energy. In conclusion, the neuroprotective effects of PCr in vitro and in vivo rely on normalizing mitochondrial function and reducing oxidative stress via Akt mediated Nrf2/HO-1 pathway, suggesting that PCr may be a novel therapeutic candidate for the treatment of diabetes-associated neurodegenerative diseases.

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