Elevated levels of reactive oxygen species (ROS) are a hallmark of obesity. Peroxiredoxin 5 (Prx5), which is a cysteine-dependent peroxidase enzyme, has an intensive ROS scavenging activity because it is located in the cytosol and mitochondria. Therefore, we focused on the role of Prx5 in regulating mitochondrial ROS and adipogenesis. We demonstrated that Prx5 expression was upregulated during adipogenesis and Prx5 overexpression suppressed adipogenesis by regulating cytosolic and mitochondrial ROS generation. Silencing Prx5 promoted preadipocytes to differentiate into adipocytes accumulating lipids by activating adipogenic protein expression. Prx5-deletion mice fed on a high-fat diet (HFD) exhibited significant increase in body weight, enormous fat pads, and adipocyte hypertrophy in comparison to wild type mice. Prx5 deletion also remarkably induced adipogenesis-related gene expression in white adipose tissue. These phenotypic changes in Prx5-deletion mice were accompanied with lipid metabolic disorders, such as excessive lipid accumulation in the liver, severe hepatic steatosis, and high levels of triglyceride in the serum. These results demonstrated that Prx5 deletion increased the susceptibility to HFD-induced obesity and several of its associated metabolic disorders. In conclusion, we suggest that Prx5 inhibits adipogenesis by modulating ROS generation and adipogenic gene expression, implying that Prx5 may serve as a potential strategy to prevent and treat obesity.