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Impaired bioenergetics and oxidative damage in the mitochondria are implicated in the etiology of temporal lobe epilepsy, and hyperacetylation of mitochondrial proteins has recently emerged as a critical negative regulator of mitochondrial functions. However, the roles of mitochondrial acetylation and activity of the primary mitochondrial deacetylase, SIRT3, have not been explored in acquired epilepsy. We investigated changes in mitochondrial acetylation and SIRT3 activity in the development of chronic epilepsy in the kainic acid rat model of TLE. Hippocampal measurements were made at 48 h, 1 week and 12 weeks corresponding to the acute, latent and chronic stages of epileptogenesis. Assessment of hippocampal bioenergetics demonstrated a ≥ 27% decrease in the ATP/ADP ratio at all phases of epileptogenesis (p < 0.05), whereas cellular NAD+ levels were decreased by ≥ 41% in the acute and latent time points (p < 0.05), but not in chronically epileptic rats. In spontaneously epileptic rats, we found decreased protein expression of SIRT3 and a 60% increase in global mitochondrial acetylation, as well as enhanced acetylation of the known SIRT3 substrates MnSOD, Ndufa9 of Complex I and IDH2 (all p < 0.05), suggesting SIRT3 dysfunction in chronic epilepsy. Mass spectrometry-based acetylomics investigation of hippocampal mitochondria demonstrated a 79% increase in unique acetylated proteins from rats in the chronic phase vs. controls. Pathway analysis identified numerous mitochondrial bioenergetic pathways affected by mitochondrial acetylation. These results suggest SIRT3 dysfunction and aberrant protein acetylation may contribute to mitochondrial dysfunction in chronic epilepsy.