Development of a novel monoclonal antibody against 4-hydroxy-2E,6Z-dodecadienal (4-HDDE)-protein adducts: Immunochemical application in quantitative and qualitative analyses of lipid peroxidationin vitroandex vivo

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Non-enzymatic peroxidation of polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA) results in the formation of various α,β-unsaturated aldehydes, of which 4-hydroxyalkenals are abundant. The propensity of n-6 PUFA, such as linoleic acid, γ-linolenic acid and arachidonic acid, to undergo radical-induced peroxidation and generate 4-hydroxy-2E-nonenal (4-HNE) has been widely demonstrated. The ability of the latter to form covalent adducts with macromolecules and modify cellular functions has been linked to numerous pathological processes. Concomitantly, evidence has accumulated on specific signaling properties of low concentrations of 4-HNE that may induce hormetic and protective responses to peroxidation stress in cells. It has long been known that peroxidation of PUFA, and particularly arachidonic acid, also give rise to 4-hydroxy-2E,6Z-dodecadienal (4-HDDE), which is more chemically reactive than 4-HNE. Few studies on 4-HDDE revealed its ability to avidly interact covalently with electronegative moieties in macromolecules and to its ability to selectively activate the transcriptional regulator Peroxisome Proliferator-Activated Receptor (PPAR)-β/δ. The research on 4-HDDE has been impeded due to the lack of available pure 4-HDDE and antibodies that recognize 4-HDDE-modified epitopes in proteins. The purpose of this study was to employ an established procedure to synthesize 4-HDDE and use it to create and characterize a monoclonal antibody against 4-HDDE-modified proteins and establish its application for ELISA and immunohistochemical analysis of cells and tissues and further expand lipid peroxidation research.Graphical abstractHighlightsWe generated antibodies which interact with 4-HDDE-protein adducts in cells.Immunohistochemical analyses were performed in rodent and human tissues.Low levels of 4-HDDE adducts were found in aortic specimens of young mice and rats.Damaged rat kidneys and atherosclerotic human aorta had high levels of adducts.

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