NADPH oxidase, oxidative stress and fibrosis in systemic sclerosis

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Systemic sclerosis (SSc) is an autoimmune disease characterized by damage of small vessels, immune abnormalities and exaggerated production of extracellular matrix. The etiology of the disease is unknown and the pathogenesis ill defined. However, there is consistent evidence that oxidative stress contributes to the establishment and progression of the disease. This review examines the most relevant research regarding the involvement of free radicals and of nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide phosphate oxidases (NADPH oxidases; NOX) in the pathogenesis of systemic sclerosis.Graphical abstractHighlightsOxidative stress may play a role in the molecular pathogenesis of fibrosis and in the development of systemic sclerosis.NADPH oxidases are involved in ROS generation in systemic sclerosis and other fibrotic disorders.Further work is needed to develop new specific NOX inhibitors for the treatment of several fibrotic disorders.

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