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Sexual dimorphism, the condition in which males and females in a species differ beyond the morphology of sex organs, delineates critical aspects of the biology of higher eukaryotes, including selenium metabolism. While sex differences in selenium biology have been described by several laboratories, delineation of the effects of sex in selenium function and regulation of selenoprotein expression is still in its infancy. This review encompasses the available information on sex-dependent parameters of selenium metabolism, as well as the effects of selenium on sex hormones. Gaps in the current knowledge of selenium and sex are identified and discussed.Sexual dimorphism affects selenium biology and its effects on health.Sex differences have been mostly neglected in past studies of selenium biology.Sex differences should be considered in the future when analyzing selenium parameters.