Fluorescent probes for the detection of nitroxyl (HNO)

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Nitroxyl (HNO), which according to the IUPAC recommended nomenclature should be named azanone, is the protonated one-electron reduction product of nitric oxide. Recently, it has gained a considerable attention due to the interesting pharmacological effects of its donors. Although there has been great progress in the understanding of HNO chemistry and chemical biology, it still remains the most elusive reactive nitrogen species, and its selective detection is a real challenge. The development of reliable methodologies for the direct detection of azanone is essential for the understanding of important signaling properties of this reactive intermediate and its pharmacological potential. Over the last decade, there has been considerable progress in the development of low-molecular-weight fluorogenic probes for the detection of HNO, and therefore, in this review, we have focused on the challenges and limitations of and perspectives on nitroxyl detection based on the use of such probes.Graphical abstractHighlightsFluorescent probes for nitroxyl (HNO) are reviewed.Probes can react with HNO by redox- or nucleophilic-based mechanism.Detection of HNO with redox-based probes is limited to chemical systems.Reactivity of HNO toward thiols is the main limitation of its detection.

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