Biomass, carbon content, carbon storage and spatial distribution in the 32-year-old Phoebe bournei artificial forest were measured. The mean biomass of the forest stand was 174.33 t/hm2, among which the arbor layer was 166.73 t/hm2, which accounted for 95.6%. Carbon contents of stems, barks, branches, leaves, root, shrub layer, herb layer, lichen layer and litter layer were 0.5769 g C/g, 0.4654 g C/g, 0.5232 g C/g, 0.4958 g C/g, 0.4931 g C/g, 0.4989 g C/g, 0.4733 g C/g, 0.4143 g C/g, 0.3882 g C/g, respectively. The mean carbon content of soil was 0.0139 g C/g, which reduced gradually along with soil depth. Total carbon storage of the P. bournei stand ecosystem was 227.59 t/hm2, among which the arbor layer accounted for 40.13% (91.33 t/hm2), the shrub layer accounted for 0.17% (0.38 t/hm2), the herb layer accounted for 0.76% (1.71 t/hm2), the lichen layer accounted for 0.28% (0.63 t/hm2), and the litter layer accounted for 0.29% (0.66 t/hm2). Carbon content (0–80 cm) of the forest soil was 58.40% (132.88 t/hm2). Spatial distribution ranking of carbon storage was: soil layer (0–80 cm) > arbor layer > herb layer > litter layer > lichen layer > shrub layer. Net production of the forest stand was 8.5706 t/(hm2·a), in which the arbor layer was 6.6691 t/(hm2·a), and it accounted for 77.82%. Net annual carbon sequestration of the P. bournei stand was 4.2536 t/(hm2·a), and the arbor layer was 3.5736 t/(hm2·a), which accounted for 84.01%.