Tetraploid Robinia pseudoacacia was used as a main test material and diploid R. pseudoacacia was used as the control. The indices of shape, physiology and biochemistry, photosynthesis and anatomic structure of the young plants were investigated under salt stress (NaCl and Na2SO4). The treatment time was 30 d with an interval time of 7 d. Before and after treatment, the indices were measured. Results show that: 1) the growth of diploid R. pseudoacacia inhibited an evident symptom of salt damage and the leaf moisture content was lower under salt stress than that of control. But the tetraploid R. pseudoacacia was contrary. 2) The relative electric conductivity and proline (Pro) of tetraploid R. pseudoacacia increased slightly and had no significant difference compared with its control, which was contrary to diploid R. pseudoacacia. At the same time, three protective enzymes including perocidase (POD), superoxide (SOD) and catalase (CAT) kept higher activities at a post stage of salt stress to tetraploid R. pseudoacacia, which enhanced its anti-salt characteristics. Diploid R. pseudoacacia was sensitive to salt and had contrary information. 3) Salt stress had little influence to photosynthesis of tetraploid R. pseudoacacia. The net photosynthetic rate (Pn) and intercellular CO2 concentration (Ci) had no significant changes, but those of diploid R. pseudoacacia decreased singificantly. 4) After salt stress, the anatomic structure of tetraploid R. pseudoacacia had a positive reaction, including the palisade parenchyma of diachyma, was prolonged and arranged more tightly. The spongy parenchyma was shrunk and was arranged tightly, which was contrary with diploid R. pseudoacacia. These data demonstrate that tetraploid R. pseudoacacia had superior anti-salt performance.