The resistance of Japanese flounder (Paralichthys olivaceus Temminck et Schlegel) against a viral haemorrhagic septicaemia virus (VHSV) challenge induced by a preceding non-lethal aquabirnavirus (ABV) challenge was investigated through experimental dual-infections with different intervals between the two challenges. The non-specific protection conferred by the primary ABV infection against the secondary VHSV infection commenced at Day 3 and persisted up to Day 14 but vanished at Day 21 post-ABV challenge. The in vitro assay using HINAE (hirame natural embryo) cells demonstrated anti-VHSV activity in the serum of ABV-challenged flounder from Day 1 to Day 14 but not at Day 21 post-ABV challenge. A high expression of a Mx gene, a molecular marker of type I interferon(s) (IFN) occurred in the head kidneys of ABV-challenged flounder from Day 1 to Day 7. These results suggest that the non-specific protection against the secondary VHSV infection in flounder was due to IFN(s) induced by the primary ABV infection.