Peroxiredoxin is a superfamily of antioxidative proteins that play important roles in protecting organisms against the toxicity of reactive oxygen species (ROS). In this study, the full-length cDNA encoding peroxiredoxin 6 (designated EsPrx6) was cloned from Chinese mitten crab Eriocheir sinensis by using rapid amplification of cDNA ends (RACE) approaches. The full-length cDNA of EsPrx6 was of 1076 bp, containing a 5′ untranslated region (UTR) of 69 bp, a 3′ UTR of 347 bp with a poly (A) tail, and an open reading frame (ORF) of 660 bp encoding a polypeptide of 219 amino acids with the predicted molecular weight of 24 kDa. The conserved Prx domain, AhpC domain and the signature of peroxidase catalytic center identified in EsPrx6 strongly suggested that EsPrx6 belonged to the 1-Cys Prx subgroup. Quantitative real-time RT-PCR was employed to assess the mRNA expression of EsPrx6 in various tissues and its temporal expression in haemocytes of crabs challenged with Listonella anguillarum. The mRNA transcript of EsPrx6 could be detected in all the examined tissues with highest expression level in hepatopancreas. The expression level of EsPrx6 in haemocytes was down-regulated after bacterial challenge and significantly decreased compared to the control group at 12 h. As time progressed, the expression level began to increase but did not recover to the original level during the experiment. The results suggested the involvement of EsPrx6 in responses against bacterial infection and further highlighted its functional importance in the immune system of E. sinensis.