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Glutathione peroxidases (GPx) are key enzymes in the antioxidant systems of living organisms by catalyzing the reduction of peroxides to non-reactive products. In the present study, the full-length cDNA encoding a selenium-dependent GPx was identified from Venerupis philippinarum (designated as VpSe-GPx), and the spatial and temporal expression patterns post-Vibrio anguillarum, heavy metals and benzo[a]pyrene (B[a]P) challenge were also investigated. VpSe-GPx possessed all the conserved features critical for the fundamental structure and function of glutathione peroxidase. The VpSe-GPx mRNA was found to be most abundantly expressed in hepatopancreas. Vibrio challenge could significantly up-regulate the mRNA expression of VpSe-GPx, and the highest expression level was detected at 24 h post-infection with 6.5-fold increase compared with that in the control group. For heavy metals exposure, the expression of VpSe-GPx was significantly induced by 20, 40 μg L−1 Cd and 10, 20 μg L−1 Cu but depressed by 10 μg L−1 Cd and 40 μg L−1 Cu. With regards to B[a]P exposure, the expression of VpSe-GPx mRNA was significantly induced at 48 and 96 h post challenge. All these results suggested that VpSe-GPx was potentially involved in mediating the immune response and antioxidant defense in V. Philippinarum.