Control of bacterial infection resides in the core of human health and sustainable animal breeding. Vaccines as an economic and efficient immunoprophylaxis have been widely accepted, but mechanisms for vaccines do not fully understand. Information regarding to metabolome in response to vaccines is not available. Here we explore the metabolic features by using GC/MS based metabolic profile and trace metabolic mechanisms in zebrafish (Dario rerio) in response to live Edwardsiella tarda vaccine. Pathway enrichment analysis shows that live vaccine activates biosynthesis of unsaturated fatty acids and the TCA cycle and reduces aminoacyl-tRNA biosynthesis, suggesting a metabolic characteristic feature in response to the live vaccine. We further demonstrate that hydroxyl radical is limited during stimulation. Finally, we reveal oleate induces effective protection against E. tarda infection. These results have implications for immunity study that metabolic regulation contributes to immune protection. Our findings enable us to propose novel therapeutic strategies on metabolism against bacterial infections.