Molecular characterization and expression analysis of nine CC chemokines in half-smooth tongue sole, Cynoglossus semilaevis

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Chemokines are a large, diverse group of small cytokines that can be classified into several families, including the CC chemokine family, which plays a pivotal role in host defense by inducing leukocyte chemotaxis under physiological and inflammatory conditions. Here we studied 9 CC chemokines from half-smooth tongue sole (Cynoglossus semilaevis). Phylogenetic analysis divided these chemokines into four groups. The tissue specific expression patterns of the 9 chemokines under normal physiological conditions varied much, with most chemokines highly expressed in immune organs, while some other chemokines showing high expression levels in non-immune organs. In addition, the 9 chemokines exhibited similar or distinctly different expression profiles in response to the challenge of virus and intracellular and extracellular bacterial pathogens. These results indicate that in tongue sole, CC chemokines may be involved in different immune responses as homeostatic or inflammatory chemokines.

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