FeedingGlycyrrhiza glabra(liquorice) andAstragalus membranaceus(AM) alters innate immune and physiological responses in yellow perch (Perca flavescens)

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Abstract

The current work assessed the potential immunomodulatory and growth-promoting effects of Astragalus membranaceus (AM) and Glycyrrhiza glabra (liquorice) in Yellow perch (Perca flavescens). In this regard, fish with an average weight of 31 ± 1.0 g were divided into five groups, and fed daily with an additive-free basal diet (control); 1, 2, and 3% (w/w) Glycyrrhiza glabra, and the fifth diet was incorporated with a combination of 1% G. glabra-AM for a four-week period. Immunological, biochemical and growth parameters were measured; and sub-groups of fish were exposed to 1-week starvation. The results showed that incorporating AM and liquorice in the diet significantly improved Immunological [superoxide dismutase (SOD), glutathione peroxidase (GPx), catalase (CAT), Lipid peroxidase (LPx) and lysozyme activities], biochemical [Aspartate Aminotransferase (AST) and Alanine Transaminase (ALT) activities; and glucose and cortisol concentrations] and growth performance parameters [body mass gain (BMG), specific growth rate (SGR), length, condition factor (K) and feed conversion ratio (FCR)]. In addition, markedly up-regulated the expression of related genes [Insulin-Like Growth Factor-1 (IGF-1), Serum amyloid A (SAA), Complement Component C3 (CCC3), Alpha 2 Macroglobulin (A2M), SOD and GPx] in treated fish groups compared to the control. Conclusively, feeding AM and liquorice diets significantly increased (P < 0.05) growth performance, antioxidant and immune response profiles throughout the entire experiment, suggesting their beneficial rule as natural anti-stress agents.

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