This study conducted a 30-day feeding trial and a subsequent 20-day anti-virus infection trial to determine the effects of probiotic Bacillus PC465 on the growth, health status, and disease resistance of Litopenaeus vannamei. Shrimp samples were fed with three practical diets prepared from shrimp feed containing varying probiotic doses [0 (control), 107, and 109 CFU g−1]. Probiotic supplementation significantly increased the weight gain and survival of L. vannamei (p < 0.05). The effect of 109 CFU g−1 on the growth rate was higher than that of 107 CFU g−1. Compared with those in the control group, the activities of digestive enzymes, such as amylase, protease, and lipase, in the shrimp mid-gut significantly increased in the probiotic-fed groups on days 15 and 30, except lipase on day 30. The influence of 109 CFU g−1 on enzyme activities was also greater than that of 107 CFU g−1. Scanning electron microscopy revealed folds and large ravines across the interior surface of the mid-gut, and the number of these folds and ravines increased significantly after the probiotic was administered. The probiotic treatment significantly (p < 0.05) enhanced the transcription of penaeidin 3a (Pen-3a), peroxinectin, C-type lectin 3 (Lec-3), and thioredoxin (Trx) in the hemocytes of L. vannamei. Likewise, probiotic treatment increased the transcription of hemocyanin in the hepatopancreas of L. vannamei. The probiotic treatment also significantly increased the transcription of prophenoloxidase (proPO) but decreased the transcription of crustin in hemocytes. By contrast, the same treatment failed to increase the transcription of Ras-related protein (Rab-6) in hemocytes. The number of species and biomass of Bacillus in the mid-gut were higher in the probiotic-fed group than in the control group. The total biomass of microbes was higher in the shrimp fed with 107 CFU g−1 than in the shrimp fed with 109 CFU g−1 and the control group on days 15 and 30 post-feeding. In two white spot syndrome virus (WSSV) infections, the weight gain, survival, and WSSV copies within the gills of the probiotic-treated shrimp significantly differed (p < 0.05) from those of the control group. Relatively efficient protection was associated with probiotic feeding. Results suggested that Bacillus PC465 feeding improves the growth performance, survival, digestion, and nutrient absorption of L. vannamei. Probiotic treatment also enhances the microbial structures in the gut, promotes the immune status of shrimp, and provides protection against viral infection. The supplementation with 109 CFU g−1 can also improve the growth and survival of L. vannamei.