Suppressor of cytokine signaling (SOCS) family members are key regulators of the immune system, particularly cytokine action, and have now been discovered in a number of fish species. Here we identified eight SOCS proteins (CISH, SOCS1a, SOCS1b, SOCS3a, SOCS3b, SOCS5, SOCS6 and SOCS9) in the Japanese flounder and analyzed their mRNA expressions after injection of poly (I:C) and formalin-killed cells (FKC) of Edwardsiella tarda. The expressions of all eight SOCS genes were detected in all the tissues examined. Stimulation of Japanese flounder reared at 15 or 25 °C with poly (I:C) affected the gene expressions of CISH, SOCS1a, SOCS1b and SOCS3a. All SOCS genes mRNA levels were significantly changed after FKC injection. Significant up-regulation of SOCS1a, SOCS1b, SOCS3a and SOCS3b genes was detected at 3, 12 and 24 hpi. SOCS5 and SOCS6 genes were significantly down-regulated at 3 hpi. SOCS9 gene was significantly up-regulated at 12 hpi. These results suggest that all eight of the SOCS genes are involved in immune responses, and that the CISH, SOCS1 and SOCS3 genes have functions distinct from those of the other SOCS members.