Bacillus amyloliquefaciens has attracted attention as a probiotic in aquaculture due to its immunostimulatory activity against pathogenic infection. Xylanases are extensively used in animal feed to degrade plant ingredients, enhancing nutrient utilization and increasing the growth rate of various animals. In the present study, the effects of dietary supplementation with B. amyloliquefaciens and xylanase-expressing B. amyloliquefaciens R8 on the growth of Nile tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus) and immunity against Aeromonas hydrophila were evaluated. The results showed that the xylanase activity in the intestine, weight gain (WG), feed efficiency (FE) and condition factor (CF) of Nile tilapia fed B. amyloliquefaciens R8 for 2 months were significantly increased compared with those of the fish fed the control diet and B. amyloliquefaciens. Moreover, the mRNA expression of growth- and metabolism-related genes, such as insulin-like growth factor-1 (igf-1), glucokinase (GK), glucose-6-phosphate 1-dehydrogenase (G6PD), and glucose-6-phosphatase (G6Pase), was significantly induced in Nile tilapia fed administered B. amyloliquefaciens R8, and this group also exhibited a higher survival rate than the control fish following a challenge with A. hydrophila. The phagocytic activity and respiratory burst activity of head kidney leukocytes as well as the serum lysozyme activity of B. amyloliquefaciens R8-fed Nile tilapia were significantly higher than those of fish fed the control diet for 2 months. Superoxide dismutase (SOD) levels in the head kidney leukocytes of Nile tilapia fed B. amyloliquefaciens R8 differed from those of fish fed the control diet, but this was not significant. These results indicate that dietary supplementation with xylanase-expressing B. amyloliquefaciens R8 improves growth performance and enhances immunity and disease resistance against A. hydrophila in Nile tilapia.