Lysozymes, innate immunity molecules, play a vital role in immune response to pathogens. The yellow catfish Pelteobagrus fulvidraco (Siluriformes: Bagridae) is an economically important fish in China. The aim of this study was to quantify expression of the P. fulvidraco LysG gene (a g-type lysozyme) in response to pathogen-associated molecular patterns (PAMP) challenge. First, the P. fulvidraco LysG gene (PfLysG) was cloned and characterized. The full-length cDNA of PfLysG is 1323 bp, including a 5′-untranslated region (UTR) of 131 bp, a 3′-UTR of 634 bp, and an open reading frame of 558 bp encoding a polypeptide of 185 amino acids, which contains a transglycosylase SLT domain (Pfam01464). The predicted molecular weight of the protein is 20.52 kDa with a pI of 9.08. Two catalytic residues and seven N-acetyl-D-glucosamine binding sites are conserved in the sequence and there is no predicted signal peptide. The deduced PfLysG protein sequence has 84%, 76% and 69% percent identity with the LysGs from Ictalurus furcatus, Danio rerio, and Salmo salar, respectively. The predicted tertiary structure of PfLysG is very similar to that from other animals. Phylogenetic analysis showed that PfLysG is closely related to those from Teleostei. Real-time quantitative reverse transcription-PCR (qPCR) analysis showed that PfLysG was expressed in all examined tissues and most highly expressed in head kidney, spleen, and intestine. After simulated pathogen challenge with lipopolysaccharide and polyriboinosinic polyribocytidylic acid, respectively, the mRNA expression of PfLysG was upregulated significantly at different time points. The results suggest that the identified g-type lysozyme of P. fulvidraco is involved in innate immune responses.