C1q is the target recognition sequence of the classical complement pathway and a major link that connects innate and acquired immunity. In this study, a C1qDC homolog, HcC1qDC5, from the triangle-shell pearl mussel (Hyriopsis cumingii) was identified. The complete nucleotide sequence of HcC1qDC5 cDNA consists of a 5′-untranslated terminal region (UTR) of 123 bp, a 3′-UTR of 105 bp with a poly(A) tail, and an open reading frame (ORF) of 1344 bp, which encodes a polypeptide of 447 amino acids. HcC1qDC5 contains a signal peptide and three typical C1q domains. The HcC1qDC5 gene was expressed in all tested tissues, with the highest expression in the mantle. Staphylococcus aureus or Vibrio parahaemolyticus infection increased the mRNA transcript levels of HcC1qDC5 in the hepatopancreas and mantle. The recombinant HcC1qDC5 protein could bind to Gram-negative and Gram-positive bacteria as well as to different PAMPs (LPS and PGN). RNAi results showed that HcC1qDC5 was involved in V. parahaemolyticus-induced HcTNF and HcWAP expression. The combined results demonstrated that HcC1qDC5 participates in the innate immunity of H. cumingii.