We have recently reported that the survival of tilapia, Oreochromis niloticus, during Edwardsiella tarda infection is tightly associated with their metabolome, where the survived O. niloticus has distinct metabolomic profile to dying O. niloticus. Glucose is the key metabolite to distinguish the survival- and dying-metabolome. More importantly, exogenous administration of glucose to the fish greatly enhances their survival for the infection, indicating the functional roles of glucose in metabolome repurposing, known as reprogramming metabolomics. However, the underlying information for the reprogramming is not yet available. Here, GC/MS based metabolomics is used to understand the mechanisms by which how exogenous glucose elevates O. niloticus, anti-infectious ability to E. tarda. Results showed that exogenous glucose promotes stearic acid and palmitic acid biosynthesis but attenuates TCA cycle to potentiate O. niloticus against bacterial infection, which is confirmed by the fact that exogenous stearic acid increases immune protection in O. niloticus against E. tarda infection in a manner of Mx protein. These results indicate that exogenous glucose reprograms O. niloticus anti-infective metabolome that characterizes elevation of stearic acid and palmitic acid and attenuation of the TCA cycle. Therefore, our results proposed a novel mechanism that glucose promotes unsaturated fatty acid biosynthesis to cope with infection, thereby highlighting a potential way of enhancing fish immunity in aquaculture.