Monocytes/macrophages (MO/M#) play an important role in the response to infection in Plecoglossus altivelis (ayu). However, the role of transcription factors in the function of ayu MO/M# is poorly understood. Here, we cloned the cDNA sequence of the Kruppel-like factor 2 (PaKLF2) gene from ayu. Phylogenetic analysis indicated that PaKLF2 was closest to that of Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar). Real time quantitative PCR (RT-qPCR) revealed that the PaKLF2 mRNA level was highest in the peripheral blood mononuclear cells among all tested tissues. The mRNA expression of PaKLF2 was upregulated in the head kidney, liver, spleen, and brain after Listonella anguillarum infection. Subsequently, PaKLF2 was expressed and purified to prepare anti-PaKLF2 antibodies. After L. anguillarum challenge, the PaKLF2 mRNA and protein levels were significantly upregulated in ayu MO/M#. Moreover, PaKLF2 knockdown in MO/M# resulted in the enhancement of cytokine production as well as phagocytotic and bactericidal capability. Therefore, PaKLF2 may modulate the immune response in ayu by suppressing the function of MO/M#.