Innate immunity, as the most primitive and universal host defense in fish, constitutes an efficient first line of defense to combat invading microbes. Toll-like receptors (TLRs) play essential roles in the innate immunity, and TLR5 and TLR22 are two important TLRs that can recognize flagellin and double stranded RNA (dsRNA), respectively. In this study, we identified and characterized two TLRs genes of Qihe crucian carp (Carassius auratus) (designated as CaTLR5 and CaTLR22). The full-length cDNA sequence of CaTLR5 was cloned with 2972 bp including a 140 bp 5′-terminal untranslated region (UTR), a 183 bp 3′-UTR, and a 2649 bp open reading frame (ORF) encoding a deduced protein with 882 amino acids. The full-length cDNA of CaTLR22 was identified to be 3613 bp, consisting of a 228 bp 5′-UTR, a 547 bp 3′-UTR, and a 2838 bp ORF encoding a predicted protein of 945 amino acids. A typical TLR structure (an extracellular leucine-rich repeat domain, a transmembrane domain, and an intracellular Toll/IL-1 receptor domain) was found in CaTLR5 and CaTLR22. For either CaTLR5 or CaTLR22 gene, the mRNA expression levels varied in the different periods during the early stages of development. It was suggested that expression changes of gene CaTLR5 and CaTLR22 at mRNA levels were involved in developmental regulation in the early stages, and it was postulated that CaTLR5 and CaTLR22 play the important roles in immune defense in the early development stages of fish. Quantitative Real-Time PCR (qRT-PCR) revealed that CaTLR5 and CaTLR22 were constitutively expressed in all eleven tissues examined, although the mRNA expression level varied considerably among the different tissues. Following exposure to polyI:C, flagellin, and Aeromonas hydrophila, CaTLR5 and CaTLR22 were up-regulated in different tissues, and it was suggested that CaTLR5 and CaTLR22 were involved in the immune response of Qihe crucian carp against pathogenic invasions. The present findings will provide the valuable information for understanding the structure, function, expression, and the immune defense process of CaTLR5 and CaTLR22 in Qihe crucian carp, and provide new insights for developing the new strategies of disease control to protect fish against pathogens infection.