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Scavenger receptors (SRs) comprise a large family of structurally diverse glycoproteins located on the cell membrane and function as pattern-recognition receptors (PRRs) participating in innate immunity in different species. Class C scavenger receptor (SRC) has been only identified in invertebrates and its biological functions still need to be researched. In this study, we characterized the anti-bacterial function of a SRC from kuruma shrimp Marsupenaeus japonicus (MjSRC). The mRNA level of MjSRC was up-regulated significantly in hemocytes of kuruma shrimp challenged by Vibrio anguillarum or Staphylococcus aureus. The recombinant extracellular domains (MAM and CCP domains) of MjSRC have the ability of binding different bacteria and glycans in vitro. After knockdown of MjSRC, the bacterial clearance ability and phagocytic rate of hemocyte decreased significantly in vivo. Meanwhile, overexpression of MjSRC in shrimp enhanced the clearance ability and phagocytic rate of hemocytes. Further study found that MjSRC could regulate the expression of several antimicrobial peptides (AMPs). All these results indicate that MjSRC plays important roles in antibacterial immunity in kuruma shrimp by enhancing hemocyte phagocytosis and AMP expression.MjSRC was up-regulated in hemocytes of shrimp post bacterial challenge.MAM and CCP domains of MjSRC bind to different bacteria and polysaccharides.MjSRC enhances hemocyte phagocytosis of bacteria in shrimp.MjSRC regulated the expression of some antimicrobial peptides.rMjSRC has direct bacteriostatic activity in vitro.