The aim of this work was constructive to understand the function of peroxiredoxin (PRDX) family member Peroxiredoxin 1 in Sepiella maindroni (SmPrx1) through molecular mechanisms of reproduction, embryonic development and immune responses to Vibrio alginolyticus. The full-length cDNA of SmPrx1 was of 1062 bp, contains a 5′ untranslated region (UTR) of 79bp, a 3′ UTR of 359 bp, an open reading frame of 624 bp encoding 207 amino acids. The conserved peroxidase catalytic center “FYPLDFTFVCPTEI” and “GEVCPA” were observed in the sequence of SmPrx1; this indicated that it was a member of 2-Cys Prx. Quantitative real-time (qRT)-PCR assays revealed that SmPrx1 was ubiquitously expressed in all examined tissues, muscle, ink sac, liver, ovary, testis, intestine, gill and totally blood cells, and showed high levels in testis. SmPrx1 mRNA was ubiquitously detected in all tested tissues, and the expression was comparatively high in testis, hemocyte, liver and ovary. Moreover, the SmPrx1 gene transcript was detected at all five stages of embryonic development phases that were respectively the zygote stage, the pre-embryonic stage, the organogenesis stage, the morphological integrity stage, the pre-hatching stage. The general tendency of expression was gradually increased and rapidly decreased. High expressed in progenitive tissues and embryonic development exhibit the proliferation-associated protein characterization like in mammal. The expression levels of SmPrx1 in liver and hemocytes grew swiftly and quickly reached peak value after Vibrio alginolyticus challenge. As hours passed by, the expression level began to reduce and resumed to normal levels after 48 h. The antioxidant activity and peroxidase activity of SmPrx1 were 6.17 U/mg. The results showed that the recombined protein of SmPrx1 had antioxidant activity and was the importance part of the antioxidant system in Sepiella maindroni. This study provides useful information to help further understand the functional mechanism of Prx 1 in marine cephalopod immunity.