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Tumor necrosis factor receptor-associated factor 2 (TRAF2) is a crucial component of the tumor necrosis factor (TNF) mediated signaling of higher vertebrates. To elucidate its function in teleost fish, TRAF2 homologue of black carp (Mylopharyngodon piceus) has been cloned and characterized in this study. The open reading frame (ORF) of black carp TRAF2 (bcTRAF2) consists of 1611 nucleotides and bcTRAF2 contains 536 amino acids. bcTRAF2 protein migrated around 65 KDa in immunoblot analysis of both EPC and HEK293T cells. bcTRAF2 was identified as a cytosolic protein and suggested to be associated with vesicles scattering in the cytoplasm. NF-κB transcription instead of IFN transcription was activated by bcTRAF2 in reporter assay. It was interesting that bcMAVS-mediated IFN production was up-regulated by bcTRAF2 in a dose dependent manner in reporter assay. Accordingly, EPC cells transfected with both bcMAVS and bcTRAF2 showed enhanced antiviral activity comparing EPC cells only expressing bcMAVS. When co-expressed with bcMAVS, bcTRAF2 was redistributed in the cytoplasm and its subcellular location overlapped with the subcellular location of bcMAVS, which suggested the association between these two molecules. Taken together, the data generated in this paper supported the conclusion that bcTRAF2 was recruited into host innate immune response and positively regulated bcMAVS-mediated antiviral signaling.bcMAVS-mediated IFN production and antiviral activity were up-regulated by bcTRAF2.When co-expressed with bcMAVS, the subcellular distribution of bcTRAF2 was overlapped with that of bcMAVS.