aCollege of Fisheries, Hubei Provincial Engineering Laboratory for Pond Aquaculture, Huazhong Agricultural University, No. 1, Shizishan Street, Hongshan District, Wuhan 430070, Hubei Province, ChinabKey Laboratory of Marine Biotechnology of Guangxi, Guangxi Institute of Oceanology, Beihai 536000, China
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Starvation has been shown to affect growth and nutrient metabolism in fish; however, little information about the nutrient sensing signaling and mucosal adaptive immunity in fish was known. In the present study, grass carp was starved for 8weeks to simulate the natural aquaculture practice in Hubei during winter. The histology of liver was significantly affected with decreased expression of tight junction proteins including claudin-3, claudin-b and ZO-1. Muscle gene expression was also affected, with decreased expression of muscle growth promoting factors such as Myogenin, MyoD, Myf5, and increased expression of muscle degradation factors, such as CathepsinD. In addition, mucosal adaptive immunity was also significantly affected, with decreased expression of antibodies including IgZ and IgM in gut. Along with these changes was the inhibition of several nutrient sensing signaling including MAPK and TOR signaling, which leads to the inhibition of the synthesis of protein including immunoglobulin. The increased phosphorylation of eIF2α not only inhibited the translation, but also resulted in the decreased expression of IkB and increased expression of NF-B, with the activation of pro-inflammatory genes including IL8 and TNF.HighlightsStarvation reduced expression of genes in hepatic tight junctions and muscle growth.Starvation changed intestinal histology and mucosal immunity.Signaling pathways including MAPK, TOR and PERK integrated metabolism and immunity.