MicroRNA regulation of Toll-like receptor signaling pathways in teleost fish

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Abstract

The innate immune system is the first line defense mechanism that recognizes, responds to, controls or eliminates invading pathogens. Toll-like receptors (TLRs) are a critical family of pattern recognition receptors (PRRs) tightly regulated by complex mechanisms involving many molecules to ensure a beneficial outcome in response to foreign invaders. MicroRNAs (miRNAs), a transcriptional and posttranscriptional regulator family in a wide range of biological processes, have been identified as new molecules related to the regulation of TLR-signaling pathways in immune responses. To date, at least 22 TLR types have been identified in more than a dozen different fish species. However, the functions and underlying mechanisms of miRNAs in the regulation of inflammatory responses related to the TLR-signaling pathway in fish is lacking. In this review, we summarize the regulation of miRNA expression profiles in the presence of TLR ligands or pathogen infections in teleost fish. We focus on the effects of miRNAs in regulating TLR-signaling pathways by targeting multiple molecules, including TLRs themselves, TLR-associated signaling proteins, and TLR-induced cytokines. An understanding of the relationship between the TLR-signaling pathways and miRNAs may provide new insights for drug intervention to manipulate immune responses in fish.

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