Alterations in haemolymph proteome ofMytilus galloprovincialismussel after an induced injury

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A proteomic and biochemical approach was performed to assess the effects of an induced muscle injury on the haemolymph of bivalve molluscs. For this purpose, Mytilus galloprovincialis were exposed to puncture of adductor muscle for three consecutive days, and their haemolymph proteome was then compared to healthy animals using 2-dimensional electrophoresis (2-DE) to identify proteins that differed significantly in abundance. Those proteins were then subjected to tandem mass spectrometry and 6 proteins, namely myosin, tropomyosin, CuZn superoxide dismutase (SOD), triosephosphate isomerase, EP protein and small heat shock protein were identified. SOD and tropomyosin changes were verified by spectrophotometric measurements and western blotting, respectively. As some of the proteins identified are related to muscular damage and oxidative stress, other biomarkers associated with these processes that can be evaluated by automatic biochemical assays were measured including troponin, creatine kinase (CK), and aspartate aminotransferase (AST) for muscle damage, and SOD, trolox equivalent antioxidant capacity (TEAC) and esterase activity (EA) for oxidative stress. Significantly higher concentrations of troponin, CK, AST, and TEAC were observed in mussels after puncture, being also possible biomarkers of non-specific induced damage.Graphical abstractHighlightsM.galloprovincialis were subjected to induced muscle injury.2D-PAGE of haemolymph was performed and compared to healthy animals.Six differentially expressed proteins were identified by LC/MS-MS.SOD and tropomyosin changes were verified with complementary methods.Additional biomarkers of muscular damage and oxidative stress were evaluated.

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